ADEQUATE NUTRIENTS WITHIN CALORIE NEEDS
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt and alcohol.
Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan.
To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended.
To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.
Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well being, and a healthy body weight.
Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance.
FOOD GROUPS TO ENCOURAGE
Consume sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 2 ½ cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level.
Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week.
Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains.
Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
Keep total fat intake between 20 to 35 percent of calories, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low fat, or fat-free.
Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils.
Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often.
Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan.
Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar-and starch- containing foods and beverages less frequently.
SODIUM AND POTASSIUM
Consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 teaspoon of salt) of sodium per day.
Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderation-defined as the consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.
Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals, including those who cannot restrict their alcohol intake, women of childbearing age who may become pregnant, pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, individuals taking medications that can interact with alcohol, and those with specific medical conditions.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination, such as driving or operating machinery.
To avoid microbial food borne illness: Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables. Meat and poultry should be washed or rinsed.
Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing, or storing foods.
Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost foods properly.
Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts.